Medical visit

(at least twice a year)

  • Medical history: Check medical problems, hospitalizations, allergies, adverse events, substance use, sexual habits
  • Centralized medication history: Check prescription medications, over-the-counter and alternative remedies
  • Physical examination: Vital signs, body mass index.
  • Routine tests: Blood/urine tests; viral load and CD4/CD8 and T cells when required

Special approaches

(at least annually)

  • Age-appropriate assessment of comorbidities (e.g., cancer, cardiovascular disease, bone)
  • Evaluation of geriatric syndromes (falls, incontinence, sleep disorders, confusion, vision/hearing problems, sarcopenia)
  • Update vaccines
  • Screen for hepatitis C/B and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs)
  • Physical function/frailty measurements (e.g., four-minute walk, time to rise from a chair, or grip strength)
  • Nutritional assessment
  • Neuropsychological and psychological evaluation (e.g., depressive symptoms, quality of life, neuropsychological test)
  • Evaluation of social problems

Key actions

  • Prevent chronic conditions or ensure early detection and control
  • Check drug-drug interactions
  • Stop unnecessary drugs (Stopp/Start criteria)
  • Choose the most appropriate antiretroviral regimen according to the patient's conditions
  • Reduce risk factors and encourage health behaviors. Counseling on diet and physical activity
  • Intervention for sensory and physical problems
  • Maintain muscle mass and bone density through exercise and nutrition
  • Treat the underlying causes of decline in capacity
  • Cognitive remediation if neurocognitive impairment
  • Psychology/psychiatry if psychological problems (e.g., anxiety, depression)
  • Social workers if social problems
  • Capacity enhancing behaviors, strengthening personal skills, and building relationships

Adapted from Negredo et al. "Aging In HIV-Infected Subjects: A New Scenario and a New View," in Biomed Research International, 2017.